Frequently Asked Hammered Dulcimer Questions
I live in eastern Massachusetts and I'm often asked questions about the Hammered Dulcimer from people in the area who are interested in acquiring, and/or learning to play the instrument.
Here then are the questions I'm most frequently asked, along with my opinions and answers. I've also included links to other pages or email addresses where more information is available. I hope this provides a good starting point if you are interested in this beautiful and fascinating instrument.
Towards the bottom of this page are dulcimer-related questions I often get from more advanced players.
Last updated: 9/7/2018
What do I need to get started playing the Hammered Dulcimer?
Figure on buying (and spending) the following:
- A hammered dulcimer (unless you can rent one from someone - see below)
- hammers, ~$20-40 (one pair usually comes with a new instrument). There are various styles, weights, balances of hammers. You'll probably acquire a collection of these over time, with one or two sets that you'll favor and use most of the time. Most people have at least one set of soft hammers (padded on the striking surface with leather, suede, rubber, etc.), one pair of hard hammers (just wood), and one pair of double-sided hammers (soft on one side and wood on the other). Festivals are a good place to find and try out new hammers, and to swap hammers that you didn't really like when you got home with someone else in the same situation.
- a tuning wrench, ~$12-15. One usually comes with your instrument. There are two types: gooseneck and T-wrench. They both work fine, just make sure (if you are buying one) that it properly fits the pins on your instrument. Ones with a star pattern are preferable to those with a square hole.
- a case for the instrument, ~$50-300 depending upon the size and features. Most these days are soft cases made from well padded Cordura nylon. They protect the instrument when inevitably banged into something while being carried. Its thermal insulation (from the foam padding) also helps the instrument stay in tune as it's carried through indoor and outdoor temperature changes. If you will travelling much with your instrument I recommend spending the money for a good case. These are NOT cases you can check as luggage when flying, which are heavier and more expensive.
- a stand, $50-200. I recommend one that is adjustable for playing both sitting and standing, and where the instrument angle can be adjusted to suit your physique and playing style which usually cost around $150-200.
- an electronic tuner, ~$15-80. Unless you enjoy spending hours tuning your instrument you'll want one of these. Make sure it's chromatic (even if your instrument is not) - don't get one made for guitars (that only tunes 6 notes). Also be aware that some tuners can be too sensitive (making it difficult to determine what is exactly in tune - strings change pitch after being struck), or take too long to determine what note it hears. I've also found some tuners that work fine on single stringed instruments (like guitars) have a more difficult time with double/triple stringed instruments like hammered dulcimers and mandolins. Best advice is to borrow one you're interested in trying out, either from a friend or a vendor at a festival. Early on I brought my instrument to a local music store to try out various tuners there, and actually got my first paying gig from a person who watched me there.
The tuners I find work best are made by the companies Snark, Sabine and Boss. Many people use Korg tuners as well. The current favorite for most players (including me) is the convenient and inexpensive clip-on Snark SN2 or SN8, which eliminates the need for a separate clip-on pickup (vibration sensor).
I also recommend (unless you have a Snark) getting a clip-on pickup if you can (~$10-18) - otherwise you're likely to discover the pitch of your refrigerator motor, the traffic outside, etc. Don't get the suction cup type of pickup - it's really just a microphone, not a vibration-sensitive transducer.
- a humidifier for winter use if you live where it gets cold (like New England and other northern climes) and your house gets dry (less than 35% humidity). If you're not sure of your humidity level in the room where you keep your instrument get yourself a hygrometer.
I recommend getting a humidifier that holds at least 1-3 gallons of water and has a humidstat that will turn the unit on and off as needed to maintain a set humidity level. I prefer the warm mist type (no white mineral dust deposits and no smells from mold/bacterial growth) and I have two of these units in the large room where my wooden instruments live (dulcimer, guitar, bass, mandolin, marimbula, wooden drums, etc.). Both humidifiers need to be refilled daily and need to be cleaned every 1-3 weeks (your frequency will depend upon the hardness of your tap water).
In the winter, without a controlled humidity environment your soundboard can dry out and crack. This seems to be much more prevalent with unibody/glued-soundboard constructed instruments, especially Dusty Strings models.
Where can I buy a Hammered Dulcimer?
Unfortunately there are no local places in eastern Mass to buy instruments anymore that I know of.
Here are some places (listed alphabetically) that are within a days drive, have catalogs and/or do mail order. If you go to visit them be sure to call first to make sure they will be open on the day of your trip:
Most people these days buy their instruments directly from a builder or from a vendor at a dulcimer festival.
Sometimes you can find used instruments for sale on your local Craigslist. If you have a dulcimer player to accompany you when you check then out in person that will help you avoid instruments with problems.
What types of instruments are there?
Dulcimers tend to be classified by size, type of construction, and diatonic or chromatic.
Standard dulcimer sizes are 12/11 and 16/15. These numbers indicate the number of courses (sets of strings that are tuned to the same note(s)) on the treble and bass bridges. Numbers larger than this usually indicate an extended range dulcimer and/or one with the addition of chromatic notes (that don't appear in any of the diatonic scales nearby on the instrument). If you see an instrument that has more than two numbers (like 17/16/8) this indicates there is a third bridge (the 8 in this example) which is usually has extended bass notes and/or bass chromatic notes.
Diatonic instruments contain multiple 8 note diatonic scales (do-re-me-fa-so-la-ti-do) in different keys, allowing you to easily play most tunes and songs in those keys. Chromatic instruments add notes above and/or below the standard bridges with notes not found in the nearby diatonic scales. These additional notes can enable you to play more complex tunes (ie. classical and jazz) and traditional tunes that have accidental notes in them. However to play these notes often requires inconvenient long reaches and other hammer gymnastics.
There are generally two types of dulcimer construction: unibody (my term) or glued-soundboard, and floating soundboard. As with a lot of other things in dulcimer-land, one type of construction is not inherently better than the other (although some people might argue this point). They have different characteristics and can have different types of sound. Even within each type the character and sound of different instruments can vary widely - the type of wood used for the soundboard probably more influences the sound. It's just a matter of what you prefer...
Pictures of each type and description appear below. You can click on each picture for a more detailed enlargement. I've owned several of each type and so will offer my observations.
Also note that some builders make or have made instruments of both types.
(Shown: Dusty Strings D500B)
Probably most dulcimers made today are of this type. These feature a clean look since the soundboard extends to the edge of the instrument covering the pinblocks. Most (if not all) have two strings per course on both the bass and treble bridges.
Builders of this type of dulcimer include Sam Rizetta, Dusty Strings, Jerry Reed Smith, James Jones, Folkcraft Instruments, Masterworks/Russel Cook, Songbird (Chris Foss), David Lindsay (David's Dulcimers), and many others.
In my experience these instruments often have a very sweet, mellow, sometimes pianistic sound (although this is not always true), and often weigh less than a comparable instrument of the other type (but not always). They can be more sensitive to temperature and humidity changes since they must expand and contract as a unit. For the same reason they seem more prone to develop cracked soundboards in the winter if allowed to dry out (ie. no humidification in the room)
Floating Soundboard Construction
(Shown: R.L. Tack Pro*3)
With this style of instrument the sound board sits inside of a frame, which includes the pinblocks which is usually exposed. The soundboard is held in place by the tension of the strings on the bridges and is free to expand and contract. Proponents of this type claim that the sound is "better" since the soundboard is not constrained as much as with unibody/glued-soundboard construction.
Builders of this type include David Lindsay (David's Dulcimers) Michael Allen (Cloud Nine), and Bob Tack.
These instrument can come with 2 or 3 strings per treble course (the instrument in the picture above has 3 strings), and most have 2 strings on the bass courses.
I've found that they indeed can be louder (but not always), and do seem less susceptible to going out of tune due to temperature and humidity changes. Depending upon the type of wood used for the soundboard, many have a sharper sound that I find "comes through" better when playing with other instruments (especially fiddles).
What size/type of instrument should I buy?
I'm assuming you are a beginner looking to purchase your first instrument on which to learn. Here are your basic choices and my recommendations:
- Rent one - great in theory but difficult to find in practice. Very few teachers have extra instruments they offer to rent to their students. I don't know of any store that rents dulcimers.
- Purchase a used instrument - used instruments can be hard to come by. If you can find one and can have someone who knows something about dulcimers check it out for you, this can be a good, less expensive way to get your feet wet. Festivals are often a good place to find and try out used instruments. Be careful of instruments with non-standard (i.e. not 5th interval) tuning, or structural problems (cracked soundboards or pinblocks, etc).
- Buy a 12/11 model - this is how I got started. These instruments are smaller, lighter, and have fewer strings to tune. Models can range from inexpensive beginner models to rather good sounding ones that you'll be pleased with after you've become proficient. Figure on spending about $500-800 for an instrument with a case and a stand.
If you're looking at the Dusty Strings models I recommend spending the extra money (if you can afford it) for the D10 over the Prelude or Apprentice (which is what I did for my first instrument, and I'm glad I did). If you get a Dusty Strings see the note above about humidity and cracked soundboards...
- Buy a 16/15 model (if you can afford it) - this 3 octave instrument will provide you with more playing options, has a fuller sound, and will probably be the size instrument you'll want after you've learned to play on a 12/11 instrument. Prices start around $600-800 for beginner non-chromatic models, and some packages include cases and stands.
I used to recommend NOT starting out with this type of instrument because they were much more expensive than the 12/11 ones. My rationale was that after you've learned to play and started listening to other instruments, you'd probably discover a particular instrument or builder or model whose sound you really liked. You'd then be in a much better position to move up to a 16/15 you'd be happier with for a long term relationship, and could better decide whether you wanted or needed a chromatic instrument (even more $$$).
However given the small price difference these days and the number of good beginner 15/14 or 16/15 instruments and packages, I now recommend starting out with one of these larger instruments. It will sound better, you won't soon outgrow it, and it will have better resale value should you later find an instrument whose sound you fall in love with (or you decide you want a chromatic instrument).
Do I need to read music to play the dulcimer?
No, but (I think) it helps, especially in learning new tunes. Keep in mind that picking out the notes of a tune on the strings is important, but so is playing fluidly and rhythmically. If you don't currently read music it is not difficult to learn.
Where can I get lessons in the area?
I seem to be the only person left in the area who gives lessons. See my Lessons page re: prices, availability, teaching methods, etc.
So the only teacher in the area is:
- Jon Weinberg (me), Marlboro, MA -
see my Lessons page - you can send an email to me by clicking on Contact in the menu at the top of this page
Are they any regular hammered dulcimer clubs/gatherings in the area?
There used to be one but it seems to have faded away. Any takers?
Are there any dulcimer festivals or camps in the area?
Nearby festivals I am aware of are:
The best place to find out about these and other festivals is...
Are there any publications for dulcimer players?
Why yes there are!
The granddaddy hammered (and fretted) dulcimer publication is
Dulcimer Player News. It's published quarterly, and a year's subscription is currently (2012) $30. Their snail mail address is:
Another publication is Dulcimer Times. Their address is:
Upcreek Productions, Inc.
1513 Upcreek Rd.
Bidwell, OH 45614
What other Hammered Dulcimer resources are on the internet?
Check out EverythingDulcimer.com, although these days it seems to be more oriented to mountain dulcimers.
There is an active Hammered Dulcimer Players Facebook page you can subscribe to
Google: Hammered Dulcimer - there's lots out there...
There is or was a usenet newsgroup: rec.music.makers.dulcimer
How do you change a broken loop-end string?
Tools you'll need:
- small needle-nose pliers with wire cutters
- a small to medium sized binder clip (from an office supply store), a spring-loaded clothes pin, or a small piece of rubber of plastic hose that tightly fits over a hitch pin
There are a couple of methods to put on a new string, but here's a popular standard method which is what I use (and which does not require any special tools).
It's simpler than it may seem from these detailed instructions. I suggest first reading thru all these steps once before starting the process, and then following each step in order:
The new string will stretch a little for a while as you play it (going flat), so you'll need to check it and periodically tune it back up to pitch until it stabilizes. This is normal.
- Using the needle-nose pliers remove any remains of the broken wire from the tuning and hitch pins
- Unwind (counter clockwise) the now bare tuning pin 2 1/2 to 3 turns (for heavier or wound strings) or 3 to 3 1/2 turns (for lighter, non-wound strings) so that the hole in the pin (for the string) is parallel to the bottom and top rail of your dulcimer
- Put the loop end of the new string on its hitch pin. Hold it in place (from popping off) with the binder clip or clothespin as a third hand, or ask someone else to hold it on for you
- Thread the other end of the string along it's path over and through the bridges and thru the hole in the tuning pin
- Using the wire cutter in the needle-nose pliers, cut the end of the string sticking out of the tuning pin about 1.5 to 2 inches from the tuning pin (so there is that much of it sticking out of the pin)
- For lighter weight strings use your needle-nose pliers to make a 90 degree bend at the very end of the string - approximately 1/8 inch long. This will help keep the string from pulling back thru the tuning pin as you wind it down. This step is not needed for heavier or wound strings.
- Push the end of the string back into the tuning pin so the end of it is flush with outside edge of pin (ie. does not stick out of the hole). If you had put a bend in the end of the string it should be flat against the outside surface of the tuning pin so it can't get pulled thru the pin hole
- Put your tuning wrench on the tuning pin. While holding the string taught against the side of the tuning pin with one hand, turn the wrench and pin (clockwise) with your other hand so the string wraps around the outside of the tuning pin with the windings going downward towards dulcimer. Which hand to use for holding and turning will depend upon which side of your dulcimer the tuning pin is on. Continue holding the windings against the outside of the pin to maintain tension on the string as you are turning/tightening it. Keep the windings taught and prevent the string from pulling through the tuning pin hole
- Make sure windings go downwards on the tuning pin (i.e. towards the dulcimer). They should never reach or touch the soundboard if they are kept tight (ie. close together) on the tuning pin
- As the string begins to tighten make sure it is following it's proper path across and through the bridges - make sure it's not crossing another string or caught on a bridge pedestal
- When it's tight enough so that the windings on the pin will not loosen, you can let go of the windings on the side of the tuning pin. Continue turning the tuning pin and tune the string to pitch
I notice you don't use a microphone when you perform on stage. What kind of pickups do you use and how did you install them in your Hammered Dulcimer?
I use Pick-up-the-World or Schatten Design stereo HD pickups in my hammered dulcimers. Here's a document with everything you need to know about how I use them and how to install them if you are considering installing pickups in/on your instrument.
I recently purchased a newly built hammered dulcimer. How should I "break it in" and how long will it take until it loosens up and sounds better/fuller/more resonant?
Under normal circumstances it usually takes anywhere from 6 to 18 months of playing to break in a new dulcimer. Once broken in the instrument will sound fuller, louder and more resonant, and the strings will not feel so "tight".
Here's a way to significantly speed up this process: attach a percussive massager with a variable speed control to your instrument for a week, and each day (preferabley several times a day) vary the speed/frequency so you end up vibrating all frequencies of the dulcimer.
I've used this technique on both of my JRS dulcimers with great success, and in both cases it literally took many months off the break-in time. Here is a picture of what this looked like on my most recent one.
Here are some helpful hints if you wish to do this with your dulcimer:
- I used a Zyllion ZMA-16 percussive massager (originally purchased on Amazon to help loosen tight leg muscles). Any good percussive massager with significant weight in it's head will do. Check it's weight: if the whole unit weighs less than 2 pounds it's probably too light to exercise the dulcimer well
- Protect your dulcimer from being scratched or otherwise damaged by the vibrating massager, especially if it gets loose. I used a silicon kitchen trivet (black in the picture), two layers of rubberized shelf liner (green), and a folded over fibrous pad (blue - might be a floor mat or pad) all purchased inexpensively at a dollar store
- Position the head of the massager over the center of your treble bridge so the vibrations will reach the soundboard and the rest of the instrument through the bridge. I laid the massager on it's side so I could access the vibration speed control on the handle, plus the side is flatter and would be less likely to move around
- If your dulcimer has removable dampers take them off during this exercise
- Use bungee cords to hold the massager firmly against the instrument (on the padding) by wrapping them around the dulcimer and the stand. Use several ones at different angles so the massager won't work itself loose once it's turned on. Observe it for a few minutes after turning it on to make sure it doesn't move around
- Use padding as needed to protect your dulcimer finish from the bungee cords where it goes over an edge of the dulcimer. I used a folded microfiber cloth in the picture